Weather Talk (Buttonville Flying Club)

Last night (November 8th/2017) I gave an hour talk to about 40 general aviation pilots at an airport with nine lives. It supposed to have seen the wrecking ball several times, but it continues to be a viable airport. I sold 27 books and met some great people. And I also scored this hat! 

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As well, It takes money to sell books. I just enlisted Skies Magazine and Wings Magazine. Canadian Aviator will be advertising my book in their virtual bookstore. 

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When In Doubt (Deicing on my mind)

I thought of writing a deice article for my pending contribution to Canadian Aviator and started doing TC's When in Doubt surface contamination exam. (If you are into forms, it's the TP 10643).

I must admit, whoever created this did a great job. However, the exam will take hours. One has to search many documents to find the answers. Here iy attempt to the first ten questions. There is more but you will have to buy my book. :) Honestly Canadian Aviation Weather has a great chapter on airframe icing. Just saying...

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When in Doubt

1.01 Frost, ice or snow on top of deicing or anti-icing fluids

(1)  is not considered as adhering to the aircraft and a take-off may be made.

(2)  must be considered as adhering to the aircraft and a take-off should not be attempted.

(3)  is only considered as adhering to the aircraft when Vr speeds are below 100 kt.

(4)  is not considered as adhering if the aircraft has been de-iced and then anti-iced.

Reference: WID (When in Doubt) Page 52 #77 Frost, ice or snow on top of deicing or anti-icing fluids must be considered as adhering to the aircraft and take-off must not be attempted.

1.02  Where conditions are such that frost, ice or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, no person shall take-off or attempt to take-off in an aircraft unless...

(1)  it has been de-iced.

(2)  it has been inspected immediately prior to take-off to determine whether any frost, ice or snow is adhering to any of its critical surfaces. 

(3)  its skin temperature is warm enough to ensure that adhering frost, ice or snow will slide off on take-off.

(4)  its power and runway length are sufficient to allow acceleration to Vr plus 10% before rotation.

Reference: CARS 602.11 page 452The aircraft has been inspected immediately prior to take-off to determine whether any frost, ice or snow is adhering to any of its critical surfaces.

1.03  Prior to take-off, the PIC cannot confirm that the aircraft is "clean". Take-off

(1)  may be commenced provided the maximum holdover time has not been exceeded

(2)  may be commenced provided the anti-ice fluid used was of the type that prevents ice or snow from sticking to the critical surfaces.

(3)  may be commenced provided the amount of frost, ice, or snow does not exceed that specified in the company operations manual.

(4)  must not be attempted until confirmation is obtained that the aircraft is clean.

Reference: WID Page 14 Therefore, if the Pilot-in-Command (PIC) cannot confirm that the aircraft is ―clean, takeoff must not be attempted until confirmation is obtained that the aircraft is free of frozen contaminants. This is called the “Clean Aircraft Concept.”

4. One engine is kept running during a quick turn around in icing conditions because you are unable to restart it with existing internal or external power. When taxiing for take-off, you are advised that there is a significant amount of wet snow on the aircraft. As your operating instructions require both engines to be shut down for deicing, you should...

(1)  take off but delay rotation until Vr plus 10%.

(2)  take off as wet snow will slide off as the aircraft becomes airborne.

(3)  taxi back to the apron, shut down the engine you are able to restart and have the critical surfaces carefully de-iced.

(4)  cancel the flight until proper equipment is available or necessary repairs made.

Reference: Cancel the flight.

1.05  The only positive assurance that an aircraft is "clean" prior to take-off can be achieved by

(1)  confirmation from the crew chief that the fluid used has the required holdover time.

(2)  ensuring the aircraft is not subjected to excessive ground delays.

(3)  close inspection by the PIC or designated flight crew member.

(4)  ensuring take-off is within the applicable holdover time table.

Reference: WID P.52 #74Pre-Take-Off Contamination Inspection: As required by regulations, immediately prior to take-off, a pre-take-off inspection shall be made to determine whether frost, ice or snow is adhering to any of the aircraft critical surfaces, except where the operator has established a program in accordance with GOFR 622.11 and complies with that program. The pilot may need the assistance of qualified personnel to perform this inspection.

1.06  Who may inspect an aircraft immediately prior to take-off to determine whether any frost, ice or snow is adhering to any of its critical surfaces?

The PIC and

A.  a flight crew member of the aircraft designated by the PIC to carry out the inspection.

B. the operations officer.

C. the deicing crew.

D. a person designated by the operator who has received the required surface contamination training.

E. any Aircraft Maintenance Engineer.

(1)  A,B,C,D,E.

(2)  A,B,C,D

(3)  A,B,C.

(4)  A, D.

Reference: CARS 602.11.5 The inspection referred to in subparagraph (4)(a)(i) shall be performed by

(a) the pilot-in-command;

(b) a flight crew member of the aircraft who is designated by the pilot-in-command; or

(c) a person, other than a person referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), who (i) is designated by the operator of the aircraft, and (ii) has successfully completed training relating to ground and airborne icing operations under Subpart 4 or relating to aircraft surface contamination under Part VII.

 1.07  When a crew member of an aircraft observes frost, ice or snow adhering to the wings of an aircraft before take-off, the crew member

(1) shall immediately report that observation to the PIC.

(2) need not report that observation if the aircraft has recently been de-iced.
(3) shall immediately report that observation to the designated crew member.
(4) unless designated, need not report that observation.

Reference: CARS 602.11.6 Where, before commencing take-off, a crew member of an aircraft observes that there is frost, ice or snow adhering to the wings of the aircraft, the crew member shall immediately report that observation to the pilot-in-command, and the pilot-in-command or a flight crew member designated by the pilot-in-command shall inspect the wings of the aircraft before take-off.

1.08  Before commencing take-off the PIC is advised that there is frost, ice or snow adhering to the wings of the aircraft.

The PIC

(1)  may take off without a further wing inspection if the aircraft has been recently de-iced.2.  

(2)  shall request a go/no go decision from company operations.

(3)  shall request the deicing crew to inspect the wings before take-off.

(4) or another flight crew member designated by the PIC shall inspect the wings before take off.

Reference: CARS 602.11.6 (2) No person shall conduct or attempt to conduct a take-off in an aircraft that has frost, ice or snow adhering to any of its critical surfaces.

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1.09 No person shall commence a flight in an aircraft

(1)  unless it has been de-iced if frost, ice, or snow conditions exist.

(2)  unless assured that adhering frost, ice or snow will slide off on take-off.

(3) if frost, ice, or snow is adhering to any of its critical surfaces.

(4)  if frost, ice, or snow adhering to the critical surfaces cannot be removed on take-off by the aircraft deicing systems.

Reference: CARS 602.11.2 p453 (2) No person shall conduct or attempt to conduct a take-off in an aircraft that has frost, ice or snow adhering to any of its critical surfaces

1.10 An aircraft surface contamination air carrier shall provide training to crew members on the adverse effects of

(1)  biannually.

(2) on initial hiring and annually.

(3)  biennially.

(4)  on initial hiring only.

Reference: WID p.15 #13 The CAR’s require that all personnel involved in aircraft operations shall have initial and annual recurrent critical surface contamination training to continue performing their duties. This includes all ground personnel directly participating in aircraft operations such as, deicing crews and baggage handlers. Any person observing frozen contamination on the aircraft critical surfaces shall report this immediately to the PIC.

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Noctilucent cloud

A friend of mine was recently flying over Amsterdam and managed to catch this relatively rare noctilucent cloud. In case you are wondering...this is a high-altitude cloud that is luminous at night, especially in summer in high latitudes.

Picture compliments of Jon Blackhurst

 

This just in...Transport Canada amends TC AIM and heeds my take on things.

My March 11 post depicted my second article in Canadian Aviator regarding the gap (where one could drive a cement truck through) between the weatherman and the pilot. Especially when it comes to their archaic website! Well guess what? Transport Canada addressed it, albeit indirectly by releasing a memo. Progress!

(b) Aviation weather web site (AWWS)—NAV CANADA’s aviation weather web site (AWWS), available at <https://flightplanning.navcanada.ca/>, and collaborative flight planning system, available at <https://plan.navcanada.ca>, offer aviation weather products, NOTAM and the ability to file flight plans. For more information, visit <www.navcanada.ca>. Pilots operating near the border should note that U.S. METAR, SPECI and TAF must be obtained through the Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS), available at <www.aviationweather.gov/adds/>.

When in Doubt (Deice material in hiding)

I taught an airframe icing class a few weeks ago to about 30 students thirsty for aviation knowledge. During the class, I was given a copy of 80 questions from Transport Canada's website, the TP 10643, which I was told to hand out. These are great questions, but I am having a difficult time finding reference material or even better the answers. I did scan the "When in Doubt" write up but that doesn't have many of the answers. For example, the very first question: Frost, ice or snow on top of deicing or anti icing fluids....MUST be considered as adhering to the aircraft and a take off should not be attempted. I knew the answer but where the heck is it written? Again, great questions, but where is all the material?

Anyone?

Even a ground based propeller has to be deiced. What a task!

Even a ground based propeller has to be deiced. What a task!

 

 

 

Isallobaric Wind: CYYT (Torbay) gets nailed with it!

 

On March 11, 2017 the windiest city in Canada lived up to its reputation and then some. As we meteorologists say, "the bottom to an intensifying low pressure system fell out." If you look at the six-hour surface analysis's history you will see it went from: 977 to 967 to 952 to 948 millibars and then began to fill (weaken). Because the rate of change of pressure was so great, an extra component to wind development ensued. This change in pressure tendency is isallobaric wind. This is the same phenomena thought to have sunk the Great Lakes freighter, the Edmund Fitzgerald, on Lake Superior November 10th, 1975. Torbay's winds peaked at 85 knots. See the METARs below. 

Most aviation weather books don't mention this phenomena. Another reason to buy Canadian Aviation Weather.

A wildly intensifying low pressure originated from The Cape Hatteras area and exploded as it tracked over Newfoundland into the Labrador Sea.

A wildly intensifying low pressure originated from The Cape Hatteras area and exploded as it tracked over Newfoundland into the Labrador Sea.

Check out this VIDEO explaining this phenomena. 

Caribbean Weather (Bermuda High)

You might find yourself in the Caribbean on vacation or your first flying job may see you island hopping on a Twin Otter or Dash-8. For me, it recently entailed intermediate sailing lessons.

You may read this month's enRoute and you will find my column on this very topic. And better get a copy, this month marks my last contribution.

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Captain D at the Helm. Actually this boat had dual helms just like an airplane.

Below is my enRoute submission.

Caribbean weather                                               

A semi-permanent high-pressure system, called the Bermuda High, sits just north of the Caribbean, but dominates the weather southward. Air moves clockwise and outward spreading northeast to east winds throughout the Caribbean called the Trade Winds or Northeasterlies. Within this high, air also slowly subsides downward hindering cloud development with little rain occurring. It’s why your vacation weather is usually a carbon copy of the day before with some puffy white cumulus cloud dominating. Sometimes a little shower is thrown into the equation due to daytime heating.

Fact. The peak month for a hurricane is September flanked by August and October.  February is almost entirely void of these storms in the Caribbean.

Fact. The term trade winds stem from the early fourteenth century term 'trade,' meaning "path" or "track.” Many think it is because of the ensuing trade due to the favourable sailing winds.

Fact. The high-pressure belt itself is associated with light winds and deemed the Horse Latitudes. During sailing of yore, ships would lighten their load and the demand on water by throwing horses overboard.

Fact. Winds in southern Canada and northern USA are from the west called prevailing westerlies. But when landing in the Caribbean pilots will be landing into easterly-northeasterly winds. (Remember winds are named from where they are coming from).

Fact. Captain Doug will be learning to sail in St Lucia this February capitalizing on the northeast trade winds on route to Martinique.

Fact. The east side (windward) of the Caribbean islands will encounter stronger, more direct winds and higher waves.

Fact. At the southern portion of the Caribbean (about 10 to 15 degrees north of the equator) lies the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). Because of hot, humid and converging air it is where daily thunderstorms prevail. Hence the rain forest area.

Number: 29: Average daytime temperature in Celsius for the Caribbean in February.

30: Approximate degrees of north latitude where the Bermuda and Azores high-pressure belts reside. This latitude also marks the world’s deserts north and south of the equator.

9 to 22: Approximate south and north of the Caribbean boundary in degrees north. Bermuda does not make up the Caribbean.

My rendition trying to show my editor how winds blow outward and clockwise around a high pressure system.

My rendition trying to show my editor how winds blow outward and clockwise around a high pressure system.

View from Captain D's room on a Barbados layover. Not bad, eh?

View from Captain D's room on a Barbados layover. Not bad, eh?

Captain D parked on the ramp. Even though Bermuda is not part of the Caribbean, the high pressure belt that originates here is responsible for the weather to the south. Note the infamous Bermuda shorts on the facing wall.

Captain D parked on the ramp. Even though Bermuda is not part of the Caribbean, the high pressure belt that originates here is responsible for the weather to the south. Note the infamous Bermuda shorts on the facing wall.

And to prove the winds mostly blow from the east or close to it. Here are some recent METARS.

Barbados TBPB 082200Z 10020KT 9999 SCT018 26/21 Q1014 NOSIG
St Lucia TLPL 082200Z 10020KT 9999 BKN026 27/21 Q1015 NOSIG
San Juan Puerto Rico TJSJ 082156Z 12008KT 10SM FEW035 29/19